List of Gastrectomy Complications


1. Unintended intraoperative damage to major vessels and/or organs requiring reconstruction or resection
2. Intraoperative bleeding requiring urgent treatment
3. Unexpected medical conditions interrupting or changing the planned procedure


4. Stroke causing patient’s permanent deficit
5. Need for CPR
6. Myocardial infarction with patient’s transfer to CCU/ICU/other critical care facility
7. Cardiac dysrhythmia requiring invasive treatment
8. Acute myocardial failure with acute pulmonary edema or drop in EF > 50%
9. Pulmonary embolism with symptoms confirmed by urgent CT scan
10. Need for prolonged intubation (> 24 hours after the surgical procedure)
11. Respiratory failure requiring reintubation
12. Need for tracheostomy
13. Pleural effusion requiring drainage
14. Pneumothorax requiring treatment
15. Acute liver dysfunction (the Child-Pugh score > 8 for longer than 48 hours)
16. Acute renal insufficiency (postoperative creatinine twice its preoperative value)/renal failure requiring CVVH or dialysis
17. Infections (gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary, or other) with both symptoms and germ isolation


18. Postoperative bleeding requiring both urgent transfusions and invasive treatment
19. Postoperative bowel obstruction (clinical/radiological signs of obstruction, inability to enteral feed, longer need for NG suction)
20. Postoperative bowel perforation or necrosis requiring surgical treatment (or cause of death)
21. Duodenal leak (irrespective of presentation, method of identification, clinical consequences, and treatment)
22. Anastomotic leak (irrespective of presentation, method of identification, clinical consequences, and treatment)
23. Postoperative pancreatic fistula
24. Postoperative pancreatitis diagnosed both clinically and radiologically
25. Other postoperative abnormal fluid from drainage and/or abdominal collections without gastrointestinal leak(s) preventing drainage removal or requiring treatment
26. Delayed gastric emptying (by 10th postoperative day) requiring treatment or delaying discharge
27. Other major complications requiring re-intervention or other invasive procedures
CPR indicates cardiopulmonary resuscitation; CCU, coronary care unit; ICU, intensive care unit; EF, ejection fraction; CVVH, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration; NG, nasogastric.